In a perfect optical system or a first order optical system all wavefronts are either planar or spherical.
Wavefronts stay after reflection perpendicular to the propagation direction of the light.
number of wavelengths per cm
|wavenumber (cm^-1)||wavelength (um)||frequency (THz)|
= „Working Distance“
When we use the word “wide angle lens”, it must be clear what sensor is used.
The same lens can, depending on the sensor, be wide-angle, telephoto lens and normal lens.
see discussion under normal lens
Distance between mechanical front of lens and object.
The F-number is only defined for objects at infinite distance.
The sensor has according the definition of the focal length exactly the distance “focal loength” from the principal plane when the lens is focussed to infinity.
When an object comes closer, it’s image moves in the same direction. It moves further away from the principal plane.
To keep the object focussed, the distance of lens and sensor must be increased. This is equivalent with adding distance rings reagrding the infinity position of the lens. As result the images gets darker the field of view gets smaller , the therefore the magnification changes.
working F-number or effective F-number.
image side numerical apertur,
the magnification for this focus distance and
is the pupil magnification.
The effective F-number can also be described by the height “delta” of the inserted distance rings:
From (1) we get
with this we get from (2) :
From this we can derive a third way to calculate the working F# :
With the length of the needed distance rings delta