# wavefront

surfaces (in mid air) of constant OPL (optical path length)

In a perfect optical system or a first order optical system all wavefronts are either planar or spherical.  Wavefronts stay after reflection perpendicular to the propagation direction of the light.

# wavenumber

number of wavelengths per cm

sample wavenumbers
wavenumber (cm^-1) wavelength (um) frequency (THz)
22727 0.440 682
18181 0.550 545
15152 0.660 455
11765 850 353
10000 1 300
1000 10 30

# wide angle lens

Entocentric lens with a focal length smaller than the sensor diagonal, eg an f = 6mm lens on a 1/2″ sensor (the sensor size has 8mm).

When we use the word “wide angle lens”, it must be clear what sensor is used.

The same lens can, depending on the sensor, be wide-angle, telephoto lens and normal lens.

A lens of f = 8mm on a 1/3 “sensor (6mm diagonal) a slight telephoto lens.
On a 1/2 “Sensor (8mm diagonal) it is a normal lens and on a 2/3” sensor (with 11mm diagonal) a wide-angle lens.

see discussion under normal lens

# working distance

Distance between mechanical front of lens and object.

# working F-number

When you insert distance rings between camera and lens you might have noticed that the image gets darker and the field of view gets smaller.
As the lens was not changed, the F-number of the lens still must be the same. The darker image and the reduced field of view are described by the working F-number, also called effective F-number.

The F-number is only defined for objects at infinite distance.
The sensor has according the definition of the focal length exactly the distance “focal loength” from the principal plane when the lens is focussed to infinity.

When an object comes closer, it’s image moves in the same direction. It moves further away from the principal plane.

To keep the object focussed, the distance of lens and sensor must be increased. This is equivalent with adding distance rings reagrding the infinity position of the lens. As result the images gets darker the field of view gets smaller , the therefore the magnification changes.

It holds: where working F-number or effective F-number. image side numerical apertur, the magnification for this focus distance and is the pupil magnification.

For symmetrical lenses die pupil magnification is equal to 1 and the formula simplifies to Especially:

For an objective used for a 1:1 mapping holds: The effective F-number can also be described by the height “delta” of the inserted distance rings: because and From (1) we get with this we get from (2) : From this we can derive a third way to calculate the working F# : From above we learnt With the length of the needed distance rings delta we get or shorter q.e.d.

For a lens of Working F# and Magnification 1.5 holds and therefore 